English 12 – Vocabulary + grammar


1. Cách nhận biết từ loại:

 a. Cánh nhận biết danh từ: danh từ thường có các hậu tố sau:

-TION/ -ATION invention, information, education

-MENT development, employment

-ENCE/-ANCE difference, importance

-NESS richness, happiness, business

-ER (chỉ người) teacher, worker, writer, singer

-OR (chỉ người) inventor, visitor, actor

-IST (chỉ người) physicist, biologist, chemist

-AR/-ANT/-EE (chỉ người) beggar, assistant, employee

-ING teaching, schooling

-AGE teenage, marriage

-SHIP friendship, championship

-ISM (chủ nghĩa) pessimism, optimism

-(I)TY possibility, responsibility, reality, beauty

(verb)-AL refusal, arrival, survival

-TH warmth, strength, youth, truth, depth


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 who recommend the vacancy
4. In addition, you may jot down your qualifications and experience.
	A. mention	B. type	C. note down	D. save
5. Always show your best side, your keenness to work and your sense of responsibility
	A. special interest	B. very quick understanding
	C. sense of humorous	D. sense of responsibility
6. You should concentrate on what the interviewer is saying.
	A. be related to	B. express feelings	C. express the thoughts	D. pay all attention to
7. To many people, preparing for a job interview can be .
	A. stress	B. stressful	C. eased	D. pleased
8. Don’t forget to bring with you your .and letter of recommendation to the interview.
	A. resume	B. letter of application C. qualification	 D. school certificate
9. You should show the interviewer that you are really keen ..the job.
	A. at	B. in	C. on	D. for
10. Dressing neatly and formally helps you create a good .on your interviewer.
	A. impression	B. enthusiasm	C. keenness	D. preparation
11. You may feel .when failing a job interview but try again.
	A disappoint	B. disappointed	C. disappointing	D. disappointment
1. 	A. healthy	B. grocery	C. nearby	D. energy
2.	A. finished	B. played	C. preferred	D. freed
3.	A. mount	B. country	C. ground	D. found
4.	A. washed	B. advised	C. promised	D. talked
5.	A. good	B. book	C. foot	D. school
6.	A. entertain	B. endanger	C. engage	D. encourage
7.	A. engineering	B. popularity	C. information	D. experience
8.	A. religious	B. compulsory	C. convenient	D. comfortable
9.	A. equality	B. difficulty	C. discovery	D. simplicity
10.	A. fashionable	B. possibility	C. Vietnamese	D. electrician
1. Mary, sits next to me, is good at math.
	A. who	B. that	C. 0 	D. A & B are correct
2. Is this the ring .you were looking for?
	A. which	B. that	C. 0	D. all are correct
3. This morning I met somebody I hadn’t seen for ages.
	A. who	B. that	C. whoever	D. when
4. Is this the article in you were interested?
	A. which	B. that	C. whichever	D. 0
5. An orphan is a child .parents are dead.
	A. who	B. whom	C. that	D. whose
6. This is the house ..we often stay in the summer.
	A. which	B. where	C. that	D. A & B are correct
7. Mr. Brown, .is only 34 is the director of this company.
	A. that	B. whoever	C. whom	D. who
8. She couldn’t come to the party, ..is a pity.
	A. that	B. which	C. where	D. B & C are correct
9. I saw a lot of people and horses .went to market.
	A. which	B. where	C. who	D. that
10. He is riding a bicycle .by his father.
	A. buying	B. bought	C. was bought	D. which bought
11. My only blue tie, which Richard wants to wear, are really an expensive one.
 A B C D
12. They would like a teacher whom native language is English.
 A B C D
13. Do you know the reason when English men travel on the left?
 A B C D
14. Mother’s Day is the day when children show their love to their mother on.
 A B C D
15. The singer about whom I told you her yesterday is a television reported. 
 A B C D
16. What’s the name of the man________?
	A. you borrowed his car	B. which car you borrowed
 	C. whose car you borrowed 	D. his car you borrowed
17. Colin told me about his job,_______ very much.
	A. that he’s enjoying	B. which he’s enjoying	C. he’s enjoying D. he’s enjoying it
18. Sheila couldn’t come to the party, _______ was a pity.
	A. that	B. it	C. what	D. which
19. Some of the people ______ to the party can’t come.
	A. inviting	B. invited C. who invited D. they were invited
20. A pensioner is someone _____ no longer works and gets money from the state.
	A. whom	B. whose	C. which 	D. that
21. The women ______ he fell in love left him after a few weeks.
	A. with whom	B. who	C. to whom	D. for whom
22. I saw several buildings, _________ were damaged by the earthquake.
 A. most of which 	B. most of them	 C. all of whom	 D. some of whose 
23. I enjoyed the book that you told me to read it.
	 A 	 B	 C	 D
24. That commentator, his name I have forgotten, is very well-known.
 A B C D
25. The policeman must try to catch those men whom drive dangerously.
 A B C D
26. He was very surprised when he visited London, in that the drivers always drive on the right hand side of the street.
1. Cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ:
 In spite of / Despite + V-ing / N / Noun phrase: dù, mặc dù
Ex: Despite being rich, he doesn’t live a happy life.
 (V-ing Phrase)
2. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ:
Though / although / even though + S + V + (O)
Ex: Although he works very hard, he can’t earn enough money for the family.
3. Cách chuyển mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ sang cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ:
a. Đại từ + be + adj → In spite of / Despite + my / his / her / their + N (từ adj)
 In spite of / Despite + being + adj
Ex: Although he is rich, he doesn’t live a happy life.
 In spite of --------------------------------, he doesn’t live a happy life.
 Despite --------------------------, he doesn’t live a happy life.
b. N + be + adj → In spite of / Despite + the + adj + N
Ex: Although the test was very difficult, he was able to do it well.
 Despite -------------------------------, he was able to do it well.
c. S + V + O → In spite of / Despite + V-ing + O
Ex: Though she studied hard, she couldn’t get good marks in the exam.
 Despite -------------------------------, she couldn’t get good marks in the exam.
Even though he has practised driving a lot, he can’t pass the driving test.
In spite of -----------------------------------------, he can’t pass the driving test.
EXERCISE: Change clauses of concession to phrases
1. She didn’t eat much though she was hungry.
2. He couldn’t solve the problem though he is good at math.
3. Although it got dark, they continued to work.
4. Although it rained heavily, I went to school on time.
5. Although the weather is bad, we are going to have a picnic.
6. He didn’t stop his car though the traffic lights turned red.
7. He went to sleep though he had not finished the paper.
8. Although the prices are high, my daughter insists on going to the movie.
- pessi‘mistic (a)	.
- ‘pessimism (n)	tính bi quan, chủ nghĩa bi quan
- ‘pessimist (n)	.
- opti‘mistic (a)	.
- ‘optimism (n)	.
- ‘optimist (n)	.
- depression (n)	tình trạng trì trệ, sự suy thoái, chán nản
- depress (v)	.
- corpo‘ration (n): large business or company	.	
- wipe out	.
- ..(n)	sự an toàn
- on the contrary	
- threaten (v)	..
- ..(n)	chủ nghĩa khủng bố
- ‘terrorist (n)	..
- ‘terror (n)	sự khủng bố
- powerful ( ) 	..
- domestic chore 	việc vặt trong nhà
- burden (n) = load 	gánh nặng
- thanks to 	..
- invent ( )	phát minh
- invention ( )	
- labour-saving device 	thiết bị tiết kiệm sức lao động
- ‘micro tech‘nology	công nghệ vi mô
- telecom‘munication (n)	..
- ‘influence on (v,n)	
- space-shuttle (n) 	
- kph = ..	
- (be) full of	đầy ắp, nhiều
- con‘tribute to	..
- incredible (a) /in‘kredəbl/ = impossible to believe	..
Task 1: (textbook, page 86)
Task 2: True / False statements
.1. According to pessimists, in the future things are better than they are today. 
.2. Optimists think that people will live in cleaner environment and eat healthier foods in the future.
.3. With the development of micro-technology, people can work from home via computers.
.4. People will not use petrol to run cars in the future.
.5. Cars will be equipped with computers to tell how efficiently the drivers are driving and whether there is anything wrong on the road ahead. 
Task 3: Choose the best answer
1. The word “they” in line 17 refers to 
	A. robots	B. factories	C. aspects of life	D. computers
2. Thanks to .housework will no longer be a burden.
	A. computers	B. robots	C. telecommunication	D. labour-saving device
3. People will use to run cars.
	A. petrol	B. gas	C. electricity D. from electricity to methane gas
4. No one can predict the future exactly. Things may happen 
	A. expected	B. unexpected	C. expectedly	D. unexpectedly
5. Someone who is ..is hopeful about the future or the success of something in particular.
	A. powerful	B. optimistic	C. stagnant	D. pessimistic
6. She couldn’t go for a picnic with us because she had to stay .home to look her sick father.
	A. in / for	B. at / after	C. on / at	D. at / up
EXERCISE 1: Prepositions
1. Could I speak Tom please? – I’m afraid Tom is .work, but Jack is .Would you like to speak him?
2. How do I get .the station? – Turn right the end of this street and you will see it in front .you.
3. He started going ..school ..the age of five. 
4. We arrived ..the airport at 7.a.m.
5. I’m going to Bath Sunday .Mary.
6. He has lived101 Cornwall Gardens ..1996.
7. Mr John is very keen ..punctuality. His lessons always start .time.
8. Although we were a hurry, she insisted ..stopping to look for it.
9. I want to post this ..a friend Italy.
10. The car stopped ..the traffic lights and couldn’t start again.
11. How do you go .school? – It depends ..the weather. ..wet days, I go bus; ..nice days, I go ..foot.
12. Children get presents ..Christmas and ..their birthdays.
13. They succeed escaping ..the burning house.
14. You shouldn’t believe everything you read .the newspapers.
15. The course starts ..3rd November and ends January.
16. ..first we didn’t like each other, but the end we became good friends.
17. We are looking forward new possibilities.
18. Practice listening ..English tapes or English programs ..the radio.
19. He asked his father ..money.
20. The house is fire.
EXERCISE 2: Articles: a / an / the / Ø
1. sugar is sweet.
2. .oranges are green until they ripen.
3. We ate ..breakfast at eight o’clock this morning.
4. Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from ..France to .United States.
5. Please give me cup of coffee with ..cream and .sugar.
6. ..big books on ..table are for my history class.
7. He works as .assistant in same shop as I do.
8. Do you know man standing near .door.
9. Rita plays .violin and her sister plays guitar.
10. David played ..basketball and ..baseball.
11. What’s wrong with you? Have you got headache?
12. What ..beautiful garden!
13. I saw .accident this morning. car crashed into tree. driver of ..car wasn’t hurt but .car was badly damaged.
14. My friends live in .old house in small village. There is ..beautiful garden behind .house. 
15. There are two cars parked outside: blue one and grey one. blue one belongs to my neighbor; I don’t know who ..owner of .grey one is.
16. This morning, I bought ..newspaper and magazine. ..newspaper is in my bag but I don’t know where I put .magazine.
17. A: Did you have nice holiday?
 B: Yes, it was ..best holiday I’ve ever had.
18. Do you often listen to .classical music?
19. homeless need more help from the government.
20. He spends most of his life at .sea.
We had _____ dinner in a restaurant.
	A. a	B. an	C. x	D. the
We had _____ meal in a restaurant.
 	A. a	B. an	C. the	D. X
Thank you. That was ______ very nice lunch.
	A. a	B. an	C. the 	D. X
______rose is my favorite color.
	A. a	B. an	 C. the	D. X
When was _____ computer invented?
	A. a	B. an	 C. the	D. X
My daughter plays _____ piano very well.
	A. the 	B. a	 C. an	D. X
Mary loves _____ flowers.
	A. a	B. an	 C. the	D. X
Jill went to ______ hospital to see her friend.
	A. x 	B. the 	 C. a	D. an
Mrs Lan went to ______ school to meet her son’s daughter.
	A. x 	B. the 	 C. a	D. an
Carol went to ______ prison to meet her brother.
	A. the 	B. a	 C. an	D. X
Sandra works at a big hospital. She’s _______.
	A. nurse 	B. a nurse	 C. the nurse	D. an nurse
She works six days _____ week.
	A. in	B. for 	 C. a	D. X
______ is a star.
	A. Sun	B. A sun	 C. The sun	D. Suns
What did you have for ______ breakfast this morning.
	A. x	B. a	 C. an	D. the
London is _____ capital of England.
	A. an 	B. a	 C. x	D. the
When ______ invented?
	A. was telephone	B. was the telephone C. were telephones D. were a telephone
We visited _______ two years ago.
	A. Canada and the United States	 B. the Canada and the United States
	C. the Canada and United States	 D. Canada and United States
Are you going away next week? No, _______ week after next.
	A. a 	B. the 	 C. some	D. X
We haven’t been to ______ for years.
 	A. cinema	B. the cinema	 C. a cinema	D. any cinema
If you live in _______ foreign country, you should try and learn the language.
	A. the 	B. x	 C. an	D. a
1. SO / THEREFORE: để nối hai câu / mệnh đề chỉ nguyên nhân-hậu quả
- SO: (liên từ): vì vậy, vì thế
 Ex: The climate in this area is very severe, so very few animals can live there.
- THEREFORE (trạng từ): vì thế, do đó, được dùng như từ nối câu
Ex: The food prices rise too much; therefore, people’s life becomes difficult.
2. BUT / HOWEVER: diễn tả sự tương phản, đối lập
- BUT (liên từ): nhưng
Ex: Mr. John is a very rich business man, but he leads a simple life.
- HOWEVER (tuy nhiên): được dùng làm từ nối
Ex: The test was very difficult; however, all students were able to finish it.
Note: dấu câu và vị trí của từ nối Therefore, however
Ex: Bill had missed a lot of classes; therefore, he failed the exam.
 Bill had missed a lot of classes; he, therefore, failed the exam.
 Bill had missed a lot of classes. Therefore, he failed the exam.
1. Her friend lied to her -------------- she still likes and trusts him.
	A. but	B. so	C. therefore	D. however
2. Her friend lied to her ---------------- she doesn’t trust him anymore.
	A. but	B. however	C. so	D. despite
3. I didn’t have an umbrella -------------- I got wet.
	A. but	B. although	C. so	D. however
4. The water was cold -------------------- I went swimming anyway.
	A. so	B. despite	C. therefore	D. but
5. The water was cold -------------------- I didn’t go swimming.
	A. but	B. so	C. although	D. because
6. I didn’t have an umbrella ----------------------- I didn’t get wet because I was wearing a raincoat.
	A. but	B. so	C. therefore	D. despite
7. I understand your point of view. ----------------- I don’t agree with it.
	A. Although	B. However	C. So	D. Therefore
8. Nam didn’t study for the exam, ------------------ Lan did.
	A. however	B. but	C. so	D. therefore
9. It was already 6 p.m., --------------------- we closed the office and went home.
	A. but	B. however	C. so	D. because
10. He worked hard, but / although / however / therefore he could earn much money.
11. The food didn’t look appetizing, but / however / therefore / so many people started eating.
12. My friend and I were tired, however / so / but / though we went home early.
13. We wanted to stay until the end of the game, but / however / despite / because it got too late for us.
14. You could fly via Vienna; but / however / so / therefore it isn’t the only way.
15. They have lived next door to us for years, yet / however / therefore / because we hardly ever see them.
16. The normal pulse for an adult is between 60 and 80 beats per minute, so / however / but / therefore excitement will make a pulse much faster.
17. Many people have law degrees, -------------------.
A. but some of them do not practice it 	 B. however it is not practiced by all
 C. so some are not practicing law 	D. but not all of them practice law
18. Maria tried to read a novel in French ----------------- the book was too difficult for her to understand.
A. so that	 	B. therefore 	 C. but 	D. and
19. I bought a bottle of wine ----------------- we drank it together.
A. therefore 	B. so 	C. and 	D. but
20. The waiter was not very nice, ------------------, the food was delicious.	
A. however 	B. but 	C. so 	D. and so
- ‘insect (n) 	.
- become extinct 	..
- extinct (a) - extinction (n)	tuyệt chủng – sự tuyệt chủng
- endangered species 	
- (be) in danger	..
- endangered (a)	bị nguy hiểm, bị lâm nguy
- globe (n) - global ( )	.
- ‘habitat ( )	 
- destroy ( )	..
- . (n)	sự tàn phá, phá hoại
- exploit (v) - exploitation ( )	
- exploitable ( )	
- .. (n) - drain (v)	sự tháo nước - tháo nước
- rare species	
- urbanization (n)	..
- urbanize ( )	.
- urban (a)	thuộc thành phố
- construct ( ) - construction (n)	
- worldwide ( )	..
- toxic chemical 	.
- contaminate (v) - contamination (n)	
- on the verge of	sắp, gần
- (be) driven to the verge of .	.
- lead to	.
- lose (v) – loss (n)	.
- biodiversity (n)	.
- benefit from /‘benifit/	.
- conserve (v) = preserve (v)	..
- conservation ( ) = preservation ( )	..
- ‘vulnerable ( )	dễ bị tấn công
- aware of (a) – awareness (n)	
- protect s.th / s.o from	
- ..(v)	săn bắn quá mức
- a wide range of 	.
- survive (v) – survival (n)	..
- ..(n)	gấu trúc
- tropical (a) # subtropical (a)	..
- legal (a) # illegal (a)	.
Task 1 and 2 in the textbook, page 108
Task 3: Read the reading passage and choose the best answer
1. _______ is a branch of Natural Science, and is the study of living organisms and how they interact with their environment.
a. Biology 	b. Biological 	c. Biologist 	d. Biologically
2. A / an _______ species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct.
a. dangerous 	b. endanger 	c. endangered d. endangerment
3. Probability of extinction depends _______ both the population size and fine details of the population demography.
a. on 	b. in 	c. from	 	d. for
4. It is found that endangered species are often concentrated in areas that are poor and densely populated, such as much of Asia and Africa.
a. disappeared 	b. increased 	c. threatened 	d. reduced
5. Almost half of turtles and tortoises are known to be threatened with ____.	
.a. extinct 	b. extinction 	c. extinctive 	d. extinctly
6. Current extinction rates are at least 100 to 1,000 times higher than _______ rates found in the fossil record.
a. nature 	b. natural 	c. naturally 	 d. naturalness
1. may / might: 
diễn tả điều có thể xảy ra hoặc không chắc chắn
KĐ: may / might + V1 
PĐ: may / might + not + V1
KĐ: may / might have + V3
PĐ: may/might +not + have + V3
Ex: He may / might be in his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)
 A: I can’t find my bag anywhere.
 B: You may / might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop) 
 b. dùng trong câu yêu cầu lịch sự hoặc xin hay cho phép
Ex: May I use your phone? – Yes, you may. / Sorry, you may not.
 c. dùng cho lời chúc hay diễn tả niềm hy vọng
Ex: May you be happy.
Note: Could có thể dùng thay cho may / might
Ex: The phone is ringing. It could be Tim. (= it may / might be Tim)
2. must / mustn’t + V1
a. must + V1 diễn tả: 
- sự bắt buộc cần thiết They must study hard for their next exam.
- lời kết luận cho điều gì đó có dấu hiệu, chứng cứ ở hiện tại Bill looks so anxious. He must have a problem.
- sự việc ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai, không dùng ở quá khứ 
 We must go tomorrow (không dùng We must go yesterday) 
b. mustn’t + V1: diễn tả sự ngăn cấm
 You must keep it in a secret. You mustn’t tell anybody else.
c. needn’t + V1 = don’t / doesn’t have to + V1: không cần, không phải
 needn’t + V1 # must + V1
 We have got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. ( = we don’t need to hurry = we don’t have to hurry)
d. sự khác nhau giữa must và have to
- must: + sự cần thiết hay bắt buộc có tính chủ quan (người nói đưa ra ý tưởng của riêng mình)
 + chỉ dùng để diễn tả sự việc ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai, không diễn tả sự việc ở quá khứ
Ex: I must study for the exam.
 I haven’t phoned Ann for ages. I must phone her tonight.
- have to: + sự cần thiết hay bắt buộc có tính khách quan (người nói chỉ đề cập đến sự kiện)
 + có thể dùng trong tất cả các dạng
Ex: His eyes are weak. He has to wear glasses.
 You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left.
 I had to go to hospital.
EXERCISE 1: Complete these sentences with must / have to (in the correct form)
1. Jack left before the end of the meeting. He ---------------- go home early.
2. In Britain many children ---------------------- wear uniform when they go to school.
3. When you come to London again, you -------------------- come and see us.
4. Last night Don became ill suddenly. We ----------------- see a doctor.
5. I’m afraid I can’t come tomorrow. I ----------------- work late.
6. Paul doesn’t like his new job. Sometimes he ---------------------- work at weekends.
7. Caroline may ------------------ go away next week.
8. We couldn’t repair the car ourselves. We -------------------- take it to the garage.
9. You really -------------------- work harder if you want to pass the examination.
10. It’s late than I thought. I ------------------------- go now.
EXERCISE 2: Choose the best answers
11. I don’t want anyone to know. You ---------------- tell anyone.
	A. must	B. needn’t 	C. mustn’t	D. don’t have to
12. He ---------------- wear a suit to work but he usually does.
	A. mustn’t 	B. must	C. needs	D. doesn’t have to
13. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ----------------- go to work.
	A. have to	B. need to	C. must	D. don’t have to
14. Whatever you do, you ------------------touch that switch. It’s very dangerous.
	A. don’t need to	B. must	C. mustn’t	D. might
15. There’s lift in the building, so we -------------------- climb the stairs.
	A. may	B. have to	C. need to	D. don’t have to
16. We haven’t got much time. We ------------------ hurry.
	A. don’t need to	B. needn’t	C. must	D. mustn’t
17. We have enough food at home, so we -------------------- go shopping today.
	A. need to	B. have to	C. needn’t 	D. must
18. This is a valuable book. You -----------------look after it carefully and you --------------- lose it.
	A. must / need to	B. mustn’t / must	C. need to / have to 	D. must / mustn’t
- ‘swallow (v)	nuốt, đọc ngấu nghiến
- . /t∫u:/ (v)	nhai, đọc nghiền ngẫm
- .. /teist/ (v)	nếm, đọc t

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